By Ronald B. Corley
A consultant to tools within the Biomedical Sciences supplies a uncomplicated description of universal tools utilized in study. this isn't meant to be a tools e-book. fairly, it's meant to be a publication that outlines the aim of the tools defined, their boundaries and supply substitute methods as applicable. millions of tools were constructed within the quite a few biomedical disciplines and people lined during this publication symbolize the elemental, crucial and most generally used equipment in numerous diverse disciplines.
The ancient history (including a few attention-grabbing anecdotes) resulting in the improvement of ground-breaking suggestions are defined, in particular those who considerably complicated the sector of biomedical learn. Advances that earned their inventors prestigious Nobel Prizes are emphasized.
The ebook is split into six sections, highlighting chosen equipment in protein chemistry, nucleic acids, recombinant DNA know-how (including forensic established methods), antibody-based ideas, microscopy and imaging, and using animals in biomedical sciences.
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Additional resources for A Guide to Methods in the Biomedical Sciences
Recombinant DNA techniques are used to establish new therapies for treating diseases, such as immunodeficiency diseases and metabolic disorders, and are also being used for vaccine development. Recombinant DNA techniques have also significantly enhanced our ability to analyze protein structure and function, determine how genes turn on and off, and understand tissue specific gene expression. The ability to clone DNA allows us to sequence DNA, predict protein structure and experimentally prove function through protein expression and mutagenesis studies.
The use of RFLPs to help map genes involved in human diseases was first suggested by David Botstein (13), and is now widely used not only to help map genes that contribute to diseases, but in forensics for the precise identification of DNA samples (see below). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) SNPs are single base pair variations in the DNA sequence of an individual gene. They occur in the human population at a relatively high Detection and Analysis of Nucleic Acids 31 frequency and are very abundant, occurring at a rate of about 1 per 1000 base pairs.
In dideoxy sequencing, denatured dsDNA or ssDNA is copied (sequenced) using a DNA polymerase. To copy DNA, a DNA polymerase needs a primer and a supply of the 4 bases (dNTPs). A primer is a short oligonucleotide sequence of DNA complementary to one strand that “primes’ the process (for dideoxy sequencing, vectors that have so-called “universal priming sites” are generally used). To make the sequence readable, 4 different reactions are used. ) is added in limiting concentrations. Included in each reaction is a radioactive nucleotide (usually is used).
A Guide to Methods in the Biomedical Sciences by Ronald B. Corley