By Kenneth M. Setton, Marshall W. Baldwin
The six volumes of A heritage of the Crusades will stand because the definitive heritage of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of data and research of the heritage, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval international.
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Extra info for A History of the Crusades, Volume I: The First Hundred Years
The extensive lands of the bishops and abbots were held of lay lords by feudal services, and the prelates had to perform the functions of vassals either personally or by deputy. Some doughty bishops led their troops. in battle wielding a mace, which they insisted did not violate canon law as it drew no blood, but most had secular agents called advocates to head their levies. But the prelates were appointed by the secular lords and invested by them with the insignia of their holy office. They served t he lords as counselors and administrators.
He was never far removed from the threat of starvation. In general, throughout the village region thirty acres of arable land seems to have been considered a normal tenement and experts have calculated that this would support a family in ordinary years. But many tenements were smaller than thirty acres and there were bound to be bad years. And the high cost of transportation by ox-cart over bad ·roads meant that even a local crop failure would result in a famine. For the mass of the population of western Europe the village was the political, economic, social, and religious unit.
They were masters of their own lands and dealt as they pleased with their eastern neighbors, but they acknowledged themselves vassals of the kings of Germany and supported their policy in the west. Duke Vratislav II (xo6I- 1092) was a loyal follower of the emperor Henry IV. Poland was an independent state ruled by its own ki ngs. To the east of Poland lay the Russian principalities. the state was divided into a number of principalities under the vague suzerainty of the prince of Kiev. In religion and culture Bohemia and Poland were part of the Latin west.
A History of the Crusades, Volume I: The First Hundred Years by Kenneth M. Setton, Marshall W. Baldwin