By Bernard Lewis
In instances of conflict and in peace, from the earliest days of the Roman Empire to our personal, Westerners have journeyed to the lands of the center east, bringing again money owed in their adventures and impressions. but it used to be by no means a a method alternate. From the 1st Arab embassy to the Vikings within the ninth century to the web musings of the Taliban, a center East Mosaic collects a wealthy, boisterous literature of cultural exchange.
We see the yankee Revolution in the course of the eyes of a Moroccan Ambassador and the French Revolution via a chain of Imperial Ottoman proclamations. we discover brilliant pics of Napoleon ("a brigand chief"), TE Lawrence and Ataturk. We study what George Washington and Machiavelli via t of Turkish politics and listen to Flaubert and Thackeray rail opposed to japanese crime and punishment. We peer into Voltaire's enterprise correspondence and persist with the footsteps of Mark Twain, Richard Burton, Gertrude Bell and Ibn Battutta, the Marco Polo of the east. nice discoveries are recorded - an Egyptian Ambassador is brought to electrical energy and dismisses the spectacle as "frankish trickery;" one other declares the discovery of a safe mail method most dear for assignations. We input the harem with a sixteenth century organ maker and emerge with Ottoman reform.
It used to be no longer until eventually the 16th century that the 1st heart japanese rulers entered into diplomatic family with eu rulers, yet alternate usually precede diplomatic kinfolk. company males from the times of the crusades opposed to Saladin to the oil prospecting of Samuel Cox and his descendents have visible nice probabilities within the markets of the center east. And in the course of the centuries we now have been united by means of conflict. We witness the outbreak of the Crimean conflict with Karl Marx and input Egypt with Napoleon. We detect Arab customs with George Patton and stopover at Baghdad and Cairo with George F. Kennan within the moment global conflict. whilst Usama bin Ladin rails opposed to "Jews and crusaders" occupying the holy land, he's rehearsing a criticism with a protracted history.
This symphony of voices, filled with wit and knowledge, spite and sweetness, suspicion, befuddlement and coffee perception, is ordered and defined by means of our superior residing historian of the center east. The fruit of a life of scholarship and erudition, a center East Mosaic is a stunning capstone to a super profession. In a lively reappraisal of western perspectives of the east and jap perspectives of the west during the last thousand years, Bernard Lewis offers us a super over-view of 2,000 years of trade, international relations, struggle and exploration.
This booklet is a pride, a treasury of reports drawn from letters, diaries and histories, but additionally from unpublished files and formerly untranslated money owed. Diplomats and interpreters, slaves, infantrymen, pilgrims and missionaries, princes and spies, businessmen, medical professionals and clergymen all pour forth their tales of the folk and occasions that formed historical past. a center East Mosaic can't fail to entice an individual with an urge for food for heritage and a interest concerning the vagaries of cultural exchange.
From the Hardcover edition.
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Extra resources for A Middle East Mosaic: Fragments of Life, Letters and History
Thus the failure to achieve the objective of the revolution in this area can be said to be a serious consequence of the war. 0 Notes: * Author’s calculation. c Author’s estimation. 0 Average share/Year (c)* 1973–8 share/Year (c) 1979– 86* Notes: * Author’s calculation. + Author’s estimation. All figures rounded up, totals may not add up to 100. 5. The import substitution (I-S) strategy of development and the goal of self-sufficiency since the revolution have meant that a large proportion of imports has been intermediate and capital-goods imports.
E. the Iran-Iraq war are concerned. There is, it seems, hardly a country in East or West, South or North, where the rules of the ‘game’ have not been allowed to be broken, so that arms can be exported or re-exported to one or both countries. Chapter eight therefore will look at the Gulf War and the international arms trade. The revolution in Iran and the rise of Shi’ite fundamentalism in largely Sunni-Muslimdominated countries in the Persian Gulf were among the main reasons for a rapid increase in military expenditure and arms imports in the Gulf countries in the late 1970s.
7 Iran’s production of principal crop products, 1973–85 (thousand metric tonnes)* Item 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 Wheat Rice Barley Corn Sugar beet Sugar cane Cotton (raw) 4,600 4,700 5,570 6,044 5,517 5,526 5,800 5,700 6,518 6,500 5,956 5,500 6,000 1,334 1,313 1,430 1,566 1,400 1,280 1,420 1,212 1,500 1,400 1,216 1,600 1,100 923 863 1,438 1,487 1,230 1,276 1,000 1,100 1,351 1,400 1,413 1,550 1,650 25 25 65 80 55 60 57 60 50 53 55 50 50 4,940 4,200 4,670 5,250 4,150 3,653 3,900 1,500 2,318 2,100 3,650 3,290 3,385 1,050 1,200 940 600 1,000 898 1,399 1,400 1,400 1,300 1,600 2,200 2,150 615 715 470 510 535 472 278 180 211 294 202 226 200 Iran and Iraq at war: the analysis of the economic consequences 23 Bovine 99 102 104 108 160 160 161 171 181 190 165 165 168 meat Mutton 158 152 167 171 176 224 230 232 225 225 230 234 234 and lamb Poultry 100 103 106 130 189 208 211 211 213 215 230 235 240 Cows’ 1,050 1,150 1,230 1,250 1,300 1,580 1,580 1,550 1,627 1,705 1,650 1,650 1,700 milk (fresh) Sheep 555 570 593 617 640 664 687 690 710 731 705 705 715 milk (fresh) Cheese 77 81 85 86 89 98 98 99 102 105 104 104 106 Butter 48 51 54 56 58 66 66 67 69 72 70 70 71 Note: * Figures are rounded to the nearest 1,000 tonnes.
A Middle East Mosaic: Fragments of Life, Letters and History by Bernard Lewis